Tikrit Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences https://tjphs.tu.edu.iq/index.php/j <p>Tikrit Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (<strong><em>TJPHS</em></strong>) is a peer-reviewed, semi-annual specialized scientific journal that publishes original research articles and clinical studies that covers the various disciplines of pharmaceutical sciences and related topics. The Editors welcome articles in this multidisciplinary field, with a focus on topics relevant to pharmacology, clinical pharmacy and therapeutics, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacognosy, and pharmaceutics sciences.</p> <p> </p> College of Pharmacy - Tikrit University en-US Tikrit Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1815-2716 <p>© 2022 COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, TIKRIT UNIVERSITY. THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE</p> Menarche age and its association with BMI and socioeconomic status among some school girls in Tikrit City https://tjphs.tu.edu.iq/index.php/j/article/view/375 <p><strong>B</strong>ody mass index (BMI) is useful for categorizing&nbsp; under- and over-nutrition. It is the weight in kilogram divided by the height in meters and squared. <strong>Socioeconomic status (SES) </strong>is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic access to resources and social position in relation to others.<strong>Menarche</strong> is defined as the first menstrual period in a female adolescent. The purpose of this study to find out the effect of BMI and socioeconomic state on menarche among school girls in Tikrit.<strong> Methodology : </strong>In this study 100 female, aging 11-13 years old&nbsp; were selected in Al-Marjan secondary school of Tikrit region. Height and weight were measured. The body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) was used as an index of relative weight. The socioeconomic status were assessed according to the educational and occupational levels of parents of the girls. The age at menarche were evaluated . This study was done from December 2021 to March 2022. <strong>Results : </strong>The mean and standard deviation (SD) of menarche age was 12.87 ± 1.17 years. About 60.3% of girls had normal BMI and 31%, 6.8%, and 2% of them were underweight, overweight, and obese, respectively. There was no significant relationship between higher BMI and menarche age. There was no significant relationship between socioeconomic status, physical activity, and birth season, attitude towards menarche, nutritional status, and number of brothers with age of menarche .While there was a significant association of number of sisters and the menarche age.<strong> Conclusions</strong>: The results showed a no significant relationship between menarche age and BMI. The age of menarche in this region was also different compared to other regions of the globe.</p> Alaa Mufaq Musleh Copyright (c) 2023 Tikrit Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2023-06-25 2023-06-25 17 1 1 9 10.25130/tjphs.2023. Is Type II DM A Risk Factor for Osteoporosis https://tjphs.tu.edu.iq/index.php/j/article/view/369 <p><strong>B</strong>oth Type II diabetes&nbsp; mellitus&nbsp; and osteoporosis are prevalent diseases at middle aged patients and both are associated&nbsp; with significant morbidity and mortality but the relationship between diabetes and&nbsp; osteoporosis is controversial .</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong></p> <p>To determine that if&nbsp; patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) at increased risk of development of osteoporosis and&nbsp; whether&nbsp; T2DM was associated with a low&nbsp; bone mineral density (BMD).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong></p> <p>50 osteoporotic patients aged 50 years and older and were asked whether having T2DM for more than 10 years or not as a case group, another 50 patients non-osteoporotic patients and were asked whether having T2DM for more than 10 years or not as control group, both samples were recruited from rheumatology consultant department at Ibn Sena Teaching Hospital. All patients&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; received a standardized questionnaire on oste­oporosis risk factors and biochemical tests (include level of blood sugar) were done to all of them to exclude renal and liver disease. Diabetic patients are evaluated for presence of proteinuria and retinopathy; all patients were evaluated for bone mineral density (BMD, by using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry).</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>:</p> <p>In this study T2DM was not a risk factor for osteoporosis as p- value (0.687).There is no significant differences between both gender p- value( 0.629) and no significant difference was found among smokers p-value 0.05.there is neither&nbsp; significant difference among two groups regarding personal history of fracture p-value (0.115) nor family history of fracture p-value( 0.110).no significant differences in body mass index between two groups p-value(0.4). Although there was a significant difference for the presence of peripheral neuropathy between two groups, osteoporosis was more common among diabetic patient who have microvascular complication (proteinuria and diabetic retinopathy).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>T2DM seem to be not a risk factor for osteoporosis unless there is microvascular complication particularly diabetic retinopathy and or nephropathy.</p> Huda Abdul Hadi Mustafa Dhyiaa Abdlkader Alhamdani Bassam Mahfoodh S. Alabachi Copyright (c) 2023 Tikrit Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2023-06-25 2023-06-25 17 1 10 21 10.25130/tjphs.2023. Effect of Tonsillectomy on Antistreptolysin O (ASO) Titer https://tjphs.tu.edu.iq/index.php/j/article/view/370 <p><strong>Abstract</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>R</strong>ecurrent attacks of tonsillitis are a common worldwide problem and the best treatment of choice after failure of medical therapy is a tonsillectomy. The large numbers of patients that presented with recurrent attacks of tonsillitis and associated with high antistreptolysin O (ASO) titer level due to group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) tonsillitis&nbsp; will have serious complications as glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever.<strong> The aim of study: </strong>to evaluate the effect of tonsillectomy on elevated ASO titer.</p> <p><strong>Patients and methods</strong>: Prospective non-randomized clinical study was performed at Al-Jumhory teaching hospital, Mosul, Iraq; for the period from January 2021 to January 2022. that included seventy patients for whom tonsillectomy was indicated. There were 45 females and 25 males, the age range from 3 to15 years old and the mean age was7.63<br>year. Positive throat swab for group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) and elevated ASO titer level (≥200 IU/ml). Postoperative follow up of the patients were processed for six months.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp; </strong>seventy patients included in the study, presented with recurrent attacks of tonsillitis, with positive throat swab for GABHS and elevated ASO titer level (≥200 IU/ml), age between 3 to 15 years old .Follow up of the patients for six months after tonsillectomy had been shown that there is a significant decrease in ASO titer level in comparison to preoperative level measures (p &lt;0.001 )</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The most important conclusion from the result of our study that tonsillectomy lead to significant reduction in ASO titer level.</p> Amer Saleem Marwan Faisal Buraa Copyright (c) 2023 Tikrit Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2023-06-25 2023-06-25 17 1 22 29 10.25130/tjphs.2023. Synthesis, Docking Study, and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of New Hydroxy benzoic Acid Derivatives https://tjphs.tu.edu.iq/index.php/j/article/view/371 <p><strong>H</strong>ydroxy benzoic acid derivatives are an important scaffold in medicinal chemistry. A review of the literature revealed that they have a wide range of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anti-tumor properties. The current study aimed to synthesize three new hydroxy benzoic acid derivatives (compounds 8, 9, and 10) and test them as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors <em>in silico</em> and <em>in vitro</em>. Traditional organic synthesis methods were applied to produce these compounds. Docking studies revealed that compound 8 had nearly equal binding energy (DG) to erlotinib, the standard EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. -8.56 and -8.75 kcal/mol, respectively. Using the MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay, the cytotoxicity of the new hydroxy benzoic acid derivatives was tested against DLD-1 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, HeLa cervical cancer cells, and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compound 8 showed cytotoxicity against the three cancer cell lines tested (25.05, 23.88, and 48.36 µM, respectively), while compound 9 showed cytotoxicity against HeLa cells only (37.67 µM), and compound 10 was cytotoxic to DLD-1 and HeLa cells (27.26 and 19.19 µM, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC<sub>50</sub>) of compound 8 were comparable to those of the standard tyrosine kinase inhibitor drug erlotinib (13.86, 36.41, and 87.34 µM, respectively). In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicate that compound 8, through its EGFR inhibitory activity, is a promising cytotoxic agent.</p> Shaker A. Abdul Hussein Ammar A. Razzak Mahmood Lubna H. Tahtamouni Khaled Musa Mohammad Saleh Majdoleen S. Rammaha Dalal M. Ridha Copyright (c) 2023 Tikrit Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2023-06-25 2023-06-25 17 1 30 45 10.25130/tjphs.2023. A Study on Intestinal Parasites that Cause Diarrhea and Some of Physiological Effects on Children in Baghdad https://tjphs.tu.edu.iq/index.php/j/article/view/372 <p><strong>Abstract</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>I</strong>n developing nations, such as Iraq, diarrhea is the main cause of sickness and mortalities&nbsp;in children under the age of five, Diarrhea is the augmentation of water content in stools because of an&nbsp;imbalance in the normal functioning of physiologic processes of the small and large intestine responsible for the absorption of various ions, other substrates, and consequently water. The most common cause of diarrhea is eating foods that upset the digestive system ,allergies and intolerances to certain foods (Celiac disease), malabsorption of food (poor absorption). Numerous infections, such as viruses, bacterium, and parasites, are responsible for its development. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency of intestinal parasite (IP) infections, kinds and it physiological effects on children under the age of five who had diarrheal diseases.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional research study was carried out in Baghdad, Iraq (al mahmoudia and other Hospitals), between September 2021 and January 2023. The analysis comprised youngsters under the age of nine who attended&nbsp;healthcare&nbsp;facilities during the observation period and had diarrhea. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect demographic information and risk factors for intestinal parasite infections (IPIs). As per usual practices, single, fresh stool samples were used to check for IPs utilizing the direct wet mount investigation and Ziehl-Neelsen staining of formyl-ether concentrated specimens. SPSS software for&nbsp;Statistics version&nbsp;20 was used to analyze the data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 150 kids in all—32.67% boys and 67.3 girls participated in the investigation. In total, there were 41/150 IPs, or 27.3% of the population. In six youngsters (4%) there were two species of IPs found. Giardia lamblia was the parasite that was discovered the most frequently (8%), followed by Enterobius vermicularis (6.7%). After adjusting for other factors, the multivariable findings suggest that&nbsp;≥age 24 months was a factor in IPIs (AOR=0.332, 95%CI: 0.094-0.465). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This research discovered that children with diarrheal illnesses frequently had intestinal parasites. The Giardia lamblia genotype was the one that was found most commonly. Parents of young children ought to get health advice on how to avoid diarrheal infections generally and IPIs&nbsp;particularly.</p> Hiba Hazim Saleh Copyright (c) 2023 Tikrit Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2023-06-25 2023-06-25 17 1 46 57 10.25130/tjphs.2023. Synthesis and docking studies of new 5-bromoindole-2-carboxylic acid oxadiazole derivatives as EGFR inhibitors https://tjphs.tu.edu.iq/index.php/j/article/view/373 <p><strong>T</strong>he current study reports the design and synthesis of novel oxadiazole derivatives of 5-bromoindole-2-carboxylic acid and their molecular docking properties. In order to determine the structure of the new oxadiazole derivatives (3, 4a, 4b), a number of spectroscopic techniques (IR and <sup>1</sup>HNMR) were employed. Molecular docking analysis indicated that compounds 3, 4a, 4b showed favorable binding free energy against the EGFR tyrosine kinase domain. None of these compounds appeared to suppress cytochrome P450, and all of them showed appropriate absorption levels. Moreover, they did not exhibit any hepatotoxicity when tested <em>in vitro</em>. Compound 4a Reported to have the highest stability, with a good net binding energy, and an excellent binding energy with hot amino acids. Dipole moment is also rather high. This result is an indication of compound 4a is with superior capacity to create hydrogen bonds over erlotinib. Likewise, compound 4a was found to be the most stable in its interaction with EGFR tyrosine kinase. Finally, molecular dynamic simulation revealed excellent outcomes for compound 4a. </p> Omeed Muhsin Hassan Ammar A. Razzak Mahmood Lubna Tahtamouni Copyright (c) 2023 Tikrit Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2023-06-25 2023-06-25 17 1 58 77 10.25130/tjphs.2023.